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Tanzania, is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern border is formed by the Indian Ocean.

According to the 2012 census, the total population was 44,928,923. The under 15 age group represented 44.1 percent of the population.

Population distribution is extremely uneven, with density varying from 1 person per square kilometre (3 mi2) in arid regions to 51 per square kilometre (133 mi2) in the well-watered mainland highlands, to 134 per square kilometre (347 mi2) in Zanzibar. More than 80 percent of the population is rural. Dar es Salaam is the largest city and commercial capital. Dodoma, located in the centre of Tanzania, is the capital of the country and hosts the National Assembly.

The country is divided into 30 administrative regions: five on the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar and 25 on the mainland in the former Tanganyika. The head of state is President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, elected in 2005. Since 1996, the official capital of Tanzania has been Dodoma, where the National Assembly and some government offices are located. Between independence and 1996, the main coastal city of Dar es Salaam served as the country's political capital. It remains Tanzania's principal commercial city and is the main location of most government institutions. It is also the principal port of the country.

Tanzania faces a "mature", generalized HIV epidemic. Among the 1.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS, 70.5 percent are 25 to 49 years old, and 15 percent are 15-24 years. In young women ages 15 to 24, there is an HIV prevalence rate of 3.8 percent, which is significantly higher than the 2.8 percent prevalence rate among young men in the same age group. More than half of available hospital beds are occupied by HIV-infected persons.

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for United Republic of Tanzania is 790. This is compared with 449 in 2008 and 610.2 in 1990. The UN Child Mortality Report 2011, reports a decrease in under-five mortality from 155 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 76 per 1,000 live births in 2010, and in neonatal mortality from 40 per 1,000 live births to 26 per 1,000 live births. The aim of the report The State of the World's Midwifery is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal health. In United Republic of Tanzania there are only two midwives per 1,000 live births; and the lifetime risk of death during delivery for women is one in 23.


Cellphone NetworksEdit

In September 2010 the penetration rate was estimated at 48.13% over a population estimate of 42.75 million. The country's telcom regulator is TCRA.Edit

Rank Operator Technology Subscribers

(in millions)

Ownership
1 Vodacom GSM-900/1800

2100 MHz UMTS

9.065  (June 2012) Vodacom (65%)
2 Airtel GSM-900/1800

2100 MHz UMTS

4.91 (Dec 2009) Bharti Airtel (60%)
3 Tigo GSM-900/1800

2100 MHz UMTS

4.575  (Oct 2010) MIC (100%)
4 ZANTEL GSM-900/1800 0.987  (June 2009) Etisalat (51%) and Zanzibar Telecom Ltd
5 TTCL Mobile CDMA 0.112  (June 2009)
5 Benson Informatics CDMA 0.004  (June 2009)
6 Sasatel CDMA 0.02 (June 2010) Dovetel
7 MyCell CDMA Not Yet Available My Cell Company Ltd
8 Excellentcom GSM Hits Telecom
9 Egotel (Lacell) UMTS Bitmap (65%), J&AK Group (35%)
10 Rural Netco
11 SmileCom

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